For the half-year to 31 December 2014, the IPKat's regular team is supplemented by contributions from guest bloggers Rebecca Gulbul, Lucas Michels and Marie-Andrée Weiss.

Regular round-ups of the previous week's blogposts are kindly compiled by Alberto Bellan.

Tuesday, 8 January 2008

Major consultation on copyright exceptions launched

Lord Triesman has launched the first part of a two-stage consultation on reform of copyright exceptions in the light of the Gowers Review. It’s more than a year since the Gowers Review came out, but the IPKat can see why the consultation took so long. Weighing in at 100 pages and inviting responses on 66 questions, it’s a whoppper.

These are the questions:

Recommendation 2 – exceptions for educational establishments

• What impact would the expansion of the educational exceptions [to cover interactive whiteboards and distance learning] have? What costs or benefits would accrue to right holders and users of copyright works?

• Should section 35 be extended to allow educational establishments to record on-demand communications in addition to traditional broadcasts?

• If so, should the recording of an on-demand service be permitted only where the work in question was subject to an original broadcast? Would this restriction be practical?

• Do you agree that access should be subject to security measures, such as the requirement to enter a secure password in order to access a recording? What other security measures might be appropriate?

• Who should be able to view recordings made by an educational establishment in a VLE [virtual learning environment]? Is the reference to “teacher and pupils at an educational establishment and other persons directly connected with the activities of the establishment” in section 34 sufficient or too widely cast?

• What level of responsibility should an educational establishment have for maintaining the security of a password protected VLE?

• How should onward communication beyond a secure environment be prevented?

• Should limits be placed on the form of communication used by educational establishments to communicate extracts to distance learners?

• Should the expanded exception be limited to communication inside a VLE?

• Should communication by email outside a VLE be permitted?

• Should limits be placed on the form of communication used by educational establishments to communicate extracts to distance learners?

• Should the expanded exception be limited to communication inside a VLE?

• Should communication by email outside a VLE be permitted?

• Should section 36 be expanded to include classes of work other than short extracts from published literary, dramatic and musical works? If so, what classes of work should be included?

• What consequences would such an amendment have on rights holders?

• What benefits would there be for educators?

• If the exception is expanded to other works, what limits should be placed on the size of extracts? Would the application of existing limits to other works be desirable or practical?

Recommendation 8 – format shifting exception

• What impact would the introduction of a format shifting exception have? What costs or benefits would accrue to right holders and users of copyright works?

• Do you agree with the conditions proposed above? [these are for personal private use only, and there would be no right to sell, loan, or give away the copy or share it more widely. There would be no right to retain the copy if the original is given away. Third parties would not be allowed to make the copies on behalf of others.

• Would a requirement to dispose of a format shifted copy if the original was given away or sold or otherwise disposed of, be practical or enforceable? What alternatives can you suggest to address the problem of original copies going back into circulation after copies have been made?

• Should further conditions be imposed? If so, what are these?

• Should the non-infringing acts differ depending on the class of work concerned?

• Should the proposed format shifting exception be limited to recorded music and film or should it also apply to other works? If so, which ones? [the consultation cites the example of a wedding photograph. As things stand at the moment, it would infringe the photographer’s copyright if the happy couple scan it to use as wallpaper on their personal computer.]

• What impact would the introduction of a format shifting exception have on particular sectors of the creative industries?

• How many format shifts should be allowed?

• Should the exception allow additional format shifts to take account of changing technology?

• Should more than one copy be allowed to address the technological process of transferring content?

• Should the exception apply to works:

• published after the date the law changes;

• purchased after the date the law changes; or

• copied after the date the law changes?

• What would be the practical implications of the above options?

• Can you think of any alternatives?

Recommendation 9 – research and private study

• What impact would the expansion of the exception for research and private study have?

• What benefits can the expanded exception be expected to deliver?

• What might be the impact of the expanded exception on rights holders and other affected parties?

• Should the expanded exception cover both research and private study?

• Should all types of work be covered?

• Should the expanded exception cover all fields of study or just specific areas?

• What action, if any, should be taken to address possible concerns about misuse of the expanded exception?

• Do researchers and students experience difficulties getting permission to make copies today?

• Are areas of research and study not being pursued as a result of issues regarding permissions for film, sound recordings and broadcasts?

• What benefits might an expanded exception deliver for researchers and students, for educational establishments and research institutions and for society overall?

• Are there reasons why the expanded exception should be limited to ‘research’ rather than covering both research and private study?

• If the expanded exception is limited to ‘research’ is it necessary to set a clear boundary between research and private study in order to avoid confusion?

· Are there reasons why the expanded exception should not apply to all works i.e. including films sound recordings and broadcasts?

· Are there reasons why the expanded exception should not apply to all works i.e. including films sound recordings and broadcasts?

• Is it necessary to limit the scope of the expanded exception to prevent intentional misuse? If so how should it be limited? For example, would guidance on fair dealing be useful? Should there be a formal link to a course of study or research establishment?

• Are steps needed to make the boundaries of the expanded exception clear to researchers and students so as to prevent misunderstanding? If so, what steps should be taken?

• Should a DRM workaround be provided for all copying under the expanded exception or should the workaround just be limited to scientific research in line with EU law requirements?

• What impact might a broad DRM workaround have on rights holders?

• If a narrower approach is adopted, is it necessary to adjust the current arrangements for literary and other works to ensure consistency in this area?

Recommendations 10A and B – preservation by libraries

• What impact would the expansion of the exception for libraries and archives have? What costs or benefits would accrue to right holders and users of copyright works?

• What are the consequences, for rights holders and beneficiaries, of extending section 42 to cover all classes of works?

• Is it necessary to restrict the number of copies made for preservation purposes?

• If so, why, and how many copies should be permitted?

• What would be the impact on rights holders if section 42 was extended to cover museums and galleries?

• What types of museums and galleries should be included? What criteria should they meet to qualify?

Recommendation 12 – caricature, parody and pastiche

• What impact would the introduction of an exception for parody have? What costs or benefits would accrue to right holders and users of copyright works?

• Could an unlimited exception undermine the interests of owners of copyright in the underlying work by allowing advertising or the endorsement of products which are contrary to their commercial interests?

• If so, would framing the exception as a‘fair dealing’ exception address the problem adequately?

• Should the exemption for parody include a requirement to acknowledge the underlying work and its author?

• Is the ordinary meaning of the terms caricature, parody and pastiche sufficient?

• Is there any reason for excluding particular classes of work from the exception?

• Should the exception only apply to certain exclusive rights of a copyright owner or to all such rights? If the exemption is to be limited, how should it be limited and why?

• Should the exception explicitly state that it only applies where the underlying work has been made available to the public?

• Should the exception explicitly state that it only applies where the underlying work has been made available to the public?

• Is there any reason why section 79(4) should not be extended to exempt parodies from the right of attribution?

• Is there any reason why section 84 should be amended to exempt parodies from the right of false attribution?

The IPKat says that it looks like the UK-IPO has done a thorough job on this, and its preferred answers to certain of the questions suggest that it is willing to seriously consider the needs of consumers and the wider public. There was one false note though. In the section considering the copyright framework, the consultation states ‘The primary relevant ECHR consideration is whether Article 1, Protocol 1 ECHR is engaged’. This is the right to peaceful enjoyment of one’s possessions. What about free speech?

Responses are due by 8 April 2008. The IPKat would encourage his readers to respond – the UKIPO has left most if not all of the questions truly open and does appear to be genuinely seeking responses from all concerned parties.

2 comments:

Anonymous said...

Isn't he leaving soon to join the FA?

Anonymous said...

I am working on the essay about these questions. they make me crazy

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